20. ORISSA is bound by the Bay of Bengal on the east, West Bengal on the north-east, Jharkhand on the north, Chhattisgarh on the west, and Andhra Pradesh on the south . It has a total area of 1,55,707 sq km and a total population of 36,804,660 . Bhubaneswar is the capital city and the principal language is Oriya.
History and Geography
Orissa was known as Kalinga in ancient days. In the third century BC (261 BC), Ashoka the Mauryan emperor sent a powerful force to conquer Kalinga, which offered stubborn resistance yet couldnt defnd itself against the migh of the Mauryan army. But after the death of Ashoka, Kalinga regained its independence and became a powerful country under Kharavela.But it was Kharavela might as after his death Orissa passed into obscurity. In the fourth century AD, Samudragupta invaded and captured Orissa. In 610 AD, Orissa came under the sway of King Sasanka. After Sasanka's death, Harsha conquered Orissa. Orissa had its own rulers (Ganga dynasty) in the seventh century AD. Narasingha Dev of this dynasty is reputed to have built the unique Sun Temple of Konark. From Mid-16th Century, Orissa was ruled successively by five Muslim kings till 1592, when Akbar annexed it into the Mughal Empire. With the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Marathas occupied Orissa. They continued to hold it till the British took over in 1803. Orissa was made into a separate province on 1 April, 1936. After Independence, princely states in and around Orissa surrendered their sovereignty to the Government of India. By the States Merger (Governor's provinces) Order 1949, the princely states of Orissa were completely merged with the state of Orissa in January 1949. The state may be broadly divided into four geographical regions-the northern plateau, central river basin, eastern hills and coastal plains.
Agriculture contributes 28 per cent of the net domestic product of the state and employs 65 % of the total work force directly or indirectly.Rice is the principal food grain along with Sugarcane. 12.5 lakh grafts of various fruits, 10 lakh grafts of cashew and 2.5 lakh vegetables minikits have been supplied to farmers. to diversify the sector.To promote onion crops in the state, 300 quintals of quality onion seeds distributed to cover 7,500 acres of land. 2525 demonstrations on rose, gladioli and marigold were held to encourage floriculture. Emphasis is also laid on milk, fish & meat production. All 30 districts of the state are covered by Orissa Milk Federation (OMFED) to promote diary farming For scientific pisciculture in reservoirs, a 'State Reservoir Fishery Policy' was approved. 13 resevoirs having water spread area of 5709 hectares were taken up for pisciculture development.
Irrigation and Power
Irrigation potential has been created through various projects up to 2696.00 thousand hectares of which four projects were already completed. During 2005-06, Orissa Lift Irrigation Corporation (OLIC) completed 500 new LI Points under Biju Krushak Vikas Yojana and created an additional irrigation potential of 10,000 hectares. The total installed capacity of power in states sector during 2004-05 was 4,845.34 MW the power available from all sources was 1,995.82 MW. Out of 46,989 inhabited villages in the state 37,744 villages have been electrified till the end of March 2005. Being a surplus state in electricity production, surplus power to the tune of Rs. 420 crore was sold to Power Trading Corporation and National Vidyut Vyapar Nigam through GRIDCO by December 2006. 7 projects with estimated cost of Rs. 592 crore approved by Govt. of India for implementation of Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP). Highly efficient Orissa Power Generation Corporation (OPGC) paid a dividend of Rs. 31.25 crore to the State Government during 2005-06.
The Industrial Promotion and Investment Corporation Limited, Industrial Development Corporation Limited and Orissa State Electronics Development Corporation are the three nodal agencies for promotion of large and medium industries in the State. A number of mega industrial projects in sectors like steel, alumina/aluminia, oil refining, fertilizers, etc. involving large investment are in the pipeline. The state is providing institutional and financial support with various incentives and concessions for promotion of small-scale village and cottage industries. POSCO, a South Korean steel giant, entered into a MoU with Government of Orissa to set up a steel plant having a production capacity of 12 MTPA with an investment of about US $ 12 billion. The flagship Aditya Birla Group plans to setup a 1 MTPA Alumina refinery with smelter. To accelerate industrial development, employment opportunties and economic growth a single window clearance mechanism introdcued by enacting Orissa Industries (facilitation) Act, 2004 ensuring time-bound clearance of investment proposals and ratonalisation of inspections. In order to support massive investments, top priority was accorded to improvement in infrastructural facilities. For creating quality infrastructure development in IT sector, an export promotion industrial park set up at Bhubaneswar. Full medical care has been extended to the industrtial labourers and their family members through a network of ESI hospitals and dispensaries.
The State is making significant strides in Information Technology sector. MOUs signed with TCS and Wipro to set up Development Centres at Infocity in Bhubaneswar. Other companies like Hexaware Technologies & Mind Free Consulting are keen to invest in the state. An e-procurement system initiated jointly by Government of Orissa, National Institute of Smart Governance (NISG) and National Informatics Centre (NIC) to bring in a transparent and efficient system of tendering and procurement.
Acknowledging the importance of tourism promotion in economic growth of the State, Media Management Agencies and event managers were identified to take up publicity and promotion professionally. Various strategic tourism projects such as Peace Park at Dhauli, infrastructure development in Buddhist circuit comprising Lalitgiri, Udayagiri, Ratnagiri & Langudi and tourism development of Pipili were taken up. For promotion and marketing tourism fairs and festivals such as Sreekhetra Utsav at Puri, Ekamra Utsav at Bhubaneswar, Konark Festival at Konark being supported showcasing the tourism and cultural potential of the State. Orissa Tourism particiapted in travel-trade shows like Buddhist festival at Bangkok, Leisure Moscow at Moscow, WTM at London, PATA convention at Kuala Lumpur, IATO at Kochi, TTF at Kolkata, Road show at Raipur, etc. 373 guides were trained to promote private sector participation in tourism sector.Bhubaneswar is famous for the Lingaraj Temple, while Puri is famous for the temple of Lord Jagannath and its beautiful sea beach. Other places of tourist interest in the State are Konark, Nandankanan, Chilka Lake, Dhauli Buddhist temple, Udaygiri-Khandagiri ancient caves, Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri and Udaygiri Buddhist images and caves, Saptasajya, Similipal National Park and Tiger Project, Hirakund dam, Duduma Water Falls, Ushakothi Wildlife Sanctuary, Gopalpur Sea beach, Hari Shankar, Narusinghnath, Taratarini, Taptapani, Bhitar Kanika, Bhimkunda, Kapilash, etc