5. CHATTISGARH came into existence as a state on 1 November 2000 as the 26th State of of India. It was formed out of Madhya Pradesh.Chhattisgarh shares its boundary with Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra , Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh . It is the ninth largest state and population-wise it is seventeenth state of the nation.its total area is 1,36,034 sq km and has a population 20,833,803. Raipur is the capital city and the main language spoken in the state is Hindi
History and Geography
The region is refered as Dakshin-Kausal. in Ramayana and Mahabharata . In its transition from the Ancient times into the Medieval times Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri and Nagvanshi rulers controlled the region. Kalchuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1791 AD. With the advent of Britishers in 1854, Raipur gained importance. In 1904, Sambalpur was transferred to Orissa and estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh. .
Agriculture and allied activities employ nearly 80 % of the work force in the state. Kharif is the main cropping season Rice is the staple crop of the state; others include Maize, Wheat, Niger, Groundnut and Pulses. Forest occupies about 45 per cent of the total geographical area. The state has 3 national parks and 10 wild life sanctuaries
Chhattisgarh is generously bestowed with natural resources like forests, minerals and surface water. Till yesteryears-the State has undergone a radical change and is thriving with industrial activities now. Chhattisgarh is producing approximately 20 per cent of steel and 15 per cent in the country. Many Government of India undertakings like Bhilai Steel Plant, National Mineral Development Corporation, South-Eastern Coal Field Limited, NTPC and a number of large cement plants belonging to groups like ACC, Gujarat Ambuja, Grasim, L&T, CCI and La-farge of France and many steel projects (sponge iron/pig iron route) in private sector are also under different stages of implementation. There are approximately 130 steel re-rolling mills, a number of mini steel plants, ferro-alloy units, steel/cast iron casting units, engineering and fabrication units apart from large number of agro based and food processing, chemical, plastic, constructions material, forest produce based units.
There are huge coal reserves (87 per cent of India) in the state enabling cheap pithead power generation opportunities and can produce up to 50,000 MW of power. NTPC is now installing a new power generation unit, largest ever, by it in Bilaspur District. NTPC has started construction on its 2,640 MW Super Thermal plant in Sipat and another 600 MW plant in Korba. Rani Durgavati Industrial Area, Cycle Complex have been established in Raipur District, and the I.T. Park has been established by CHiPS(Chhattisgarh Infotech and biotech Promotion Society)which has has been setup under the Chief Minister's chairpersonship.
Chhattisgarh has large deposits of coal, iron ore, Limestone, Bauxite, Dolomite and Tin ore in several parts of the state. Diamondiferous Kimberlites identified recently in Raipur district are likely to yield substantial quantity of Diamonds. Medium to small deposits of gold, Statite, Fluroite, Corrundum,base metals, quartzite, soap stone, Graphite, Lepidolite, Amblygonite of workable size may develop further. 20% per cent of the country's steel and cement is produced in the State. It is the only tin-ore producing state in the country.
The state has a total capacity of 7 1,381.05 MW, out of which the thermal power share is 1,260 MW and rest is hydel power. Major projects are Mahanadi Reservoir Project, Pairy, Hasdev, Tandula, Kodar, Sondhur and Jonk.
Chhattisgarh blessed with rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The State is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, waterfalls, caves, rock paintings, and hill plateaus. These include Chitrakote Falls, Tirathgarh Falls, Keshkal valley, Khutaghat waterfall, Kangerghat National Park, the Achanakmar sanctuary, Udanti sanctuary near Raipur, Mahamaya temple at Ratanpur, Dindneswari Devi temple of Mallahar, Pali and Kendai waterfall ,The Sabari temple of Kharod Janjgir Champa, Nar Narayan temple of Sivarinarayan, Vishnu temple of Janjgir, Kailash caves and Kutumbsar caves.