4. BIHAR shares its boundary with Nepal on the north by , with West Bengal on the east ,with Uttar Pradesh on west and on the south by Jharkhand. Among the numerous rivers of Bihar major ones include Ganga, Sone, Gandak, Ghaghara, and other smaller ones.Its total area is 94,163 sq km and the total population is 82,998,509.Patna is the capital city and Hindi is the most popular languages.


History and Geography

Bihar finds its reference in the Vedas, Puranas , epics, etc., and was the land were Buddhism and Jainism found its breeding ground. Great rulers like Bimbisar, Udayin, who founded the city of Pataliputra. Chandragupta Maurya and Emperor Ashoka , the Sungs and the Kanvas ruled the land before the beginning of the christian era.These were followed by the Kushan rulers and the Gupta dynasty.The first Muslim ruler to make in-roads into the territory during medieval period was Mohammed- bin-Bakhtiar Khalji. The Tughluqs followed the Khaljis and then the Mughals .


Principal food crops of the state include are paddy, wheat, pulses and maize . Important cash crops are sugarcane,oilseeds, potato, onion, chillies, tobacco, jute and mesta. The total forest cover of the state is 7.1% its geographical area.


The state has a very diverse industrial base which include Cotton Spinning Mills at Pandaul, Bhagalpur, Siwan, Mokamah and Gaya, Railway Wagon Plants of Bharat Wagon Limited at Muzaffarpur and Mokamah, Fertilizer Manufacturing Plant of Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited (HPCL) at Barauni, Oil Refinery of Indian Oil Corporation at Barauni and Pyrites Phosphates & Chemicals Limited (PPCL) at Amjhor.Sugar mills in private sector public sector with a total crushing capacity of 45,000 TPD are located in south and north Bihar . In addition,Jute Mills at Katihar and Samastipur; distilleries at West Champaran, Bhagalpur, Gopalganj, and Riga (in Sitamarhi district);Vanaspati Manufacturing Units at Aurangabad and Patna ; Finished Leather Industry in Muzaffarpur, West Champaran, and Barauni; Medicine Manufacturing Unit at Hajipur; Food Processing Units as also ; besides Kalyanpur Cement Limited at Banjari, are notable in the industrial map of Bihar.


Tourist Centres

Important places of tourist interest are Patna (ancient city of Patliputra)Rajgir, Vaishali, Pawapuri (where Lord Mahavira breathed his last and attained Nirvana ), Bodh Gaya, Vikramshila and Nalanda(ruins of Buddhist University of higher learning), Sasaram (tomb of Shershah Suri) and Madhubani (known for famous Madhubani Paintings).