3. ASSAM shares its bounday internationally with Bhutan in the north and partially with Bangladesh on the south. on a national level it shares a boundary with all the north eastern states except Sikkim and alsowith West Bengal. It has a total area of 78,438 sq km and a total population of 26, 638, 407. the capital city is Dispur and Assamese is the principal language.
History and Geography
The word 'Assam' is derived from the word "Ahoms" ,the dynasty which uled the land for about six hundred years before being tasken over by the British.The state gets its diverse culture from the various races like Mongolian,Austric, Aryan and Dravidian who descended of this land through out its historical existence. The land has being referred to by various names in different stages of Indian history like Pragjyotisha or the place of eastern astronomy during the age of The Mahabharata and The Ramayana.Later on its referred as Kamrupa as shown by the earliest epigraphic reference on the Allahabad pillar inscription of king Samudragupta. Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese scholar pilgrim called it Kamolupa.In the writings of Arabian historian Alberuni it is again mentioned as Kamrupa.The Ahoms began their rule in the region around 1228 AD and ruled Assam nearly for six centuries. The Burmese did capture the region and controlled it for sometime before itbecame a British protectorate in 1826 when the Burmese ceded Assam to the British under the provision of the Treaty of Yandabo.
Assam is an agrarian state. The principal food crop is rice. The cash crops are tea, jute, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, potato, etc. Noteworthy horticulture products of the state include arecanut, coconut,orange, banana, pineapple, guava, mango, jackfruit and citrus fruits. It is also rich in forest resource which constituted 22.21 % of the total area providing for a wide range of wildlife illustrated by five National Parks and eleven wildlife sanctuaries. The Kaziranga National Park famous for one horned Rhino and the Manas Tiger Project (National Park) famous forRoyal Bengal Tiger are internationally renowned.
Of agriculture-based industries, tea occupies the most important place. The states also enjoys international reputation for her arts and crafts associated with her cottage industries. Cottage industries include handloom, sericulture, cane and bamboo articles, carpentry, brass and bell-metal crafts. Assam produces varieties of silk, Endi, Muga, Tassar, etc. Muga silk is produced only in Assam in the world. There are six industrial growth Centres in the State and a Central Institute for Plastic Engineering Technology (CIPET) has been established at Amingaon near Guwahati.the stae also has oil refinery at Digboi and exploration are beingf undertaken in various parts for oil and natural gas..
The state has a wide range of power resource including hydel, thermal, oil and gas which are the major source.The major power stations include Namrup Thermal Project, Chandrapur Thermal Project, and a few Mobile Gas Turbine Units along with a mini hydro-electric project. Revitalising the Thermal Power Station of Bongaigaon and completing the Karbi-Langpi Project will boost the power supply in the State. Approval has been received for Tipaimukh Dam Project.
Important places of tourism in and around Guwahati are Kamakhya temple, Navagraha (temple of nine planets), Sukreswar temple, Gita Mandir, Madan Kamdev temple, Basistha Ashram, Dolgobinda, Gandhi Mandap, , Sibsagar (Shiv Temple-Rangghar-Karengghar), Tezpur (Bhairavi temple and scenic beauty), , Haflong (health resort with Jatinga hills), Majuli (largest river island in the world), Chandubi lake (picnic spot), Hajo (meeting point of Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam), Batadrava (birth place of great Vaishnava saint Sankaradeva) and Sualkuchi (famous for silk industry)State Zoo, State Museum,Umananda (Peacock Island) and Saraighat bridge. Other places of tourist interest in the State of course include Kaziranga National Park (famous for one horned rhino), Manas Tiger Project, Pobi-tora and Orang (wildlife sanctuaries)Bhalukpung (Angling)