16. MANIPUR situated on the eastern frontier of India. It is bounded on the east by Myammar (Burma), on the north by the State of Nagaland, on the west by the State of Assam and on the south by the State of Mizoram and Myanmar. Manipur lies between 23.830 N and 25.680 N latitude and between 93.030 E and 94.780 E longitude. It has an area of 22,327 sq. kms with a total population of 2,293,896. Imphal is the capital city and the principal language spoken in the state is Manipuri


History and Geography

The historical evidence of kingship in the state dates back to 33 AD, when Pakhangba was coronated as the ruler of the region . After Pakhangba, a series of kings ruled over the kingdom of Manipur till the Burmese invaded and occupied it in the first quarter of the 19th century (1819-25). The Britishers came into the region in 1891.After independence it was merged in the Indian Union as part ''C'' State on 15 October, 1949 having a Territorial Council of 30 elected and 2 nominated members. It was only by 1963 that Legislative Assembly of 30 elected and 3 nominated members was established under the Union Territories Act, 1962. Manipur attained full-fledged statehood on 21 January, 1972 when Legislative Assembly of 60 elected members was established.

Physically Manipur comprises of two parts, the hills and the valley. The valley is at the centre surrounded by hills on all sides. The hills cover about 9/10 of the total area of the State. Manipur Valley is about 790 metres above the sea level. The hill ranges are higher on the north and gradually diminish in height as they reach the southern part of Manipur. The valley itself slopes down towards the south.


The physical terrain of the state makes agriculture a difficult job for the region.However the State Agriculture Department is formulating new policies to enhance this sector.The department is focussing

  1. Increasing cropping intensity
  2. Increasing the level of farm mechanisation
  3. Improving the soil quality by amelioration of acid soil.
  4. Attaining self sufficiency in supply of seed inputs by strengthening infrastructure in state farms
  5. Improving the capacity crop protection from insects pests and diseases through Integrated Pest Management
  6. Strengthening training infrastructure for better transfer of technology
  7. Developing infrastructure for agriculture research
  8. Introducing high yielding varieties of crops particularly for paddy, oil seeds and pulses

Total area under forest cover is 17,219 sq.km with 6,536 sq.km of dense forest and 10,681 sq.km of open forest thus accounting for 77.12 % of the total area.These forest are home to so me of the rare variety in Flora and Fauna like Siroy Lily (Lilium macklineae) from Siroy hill range in Ukhrul District, Dzuko Lily (Lilium chitrangade) from the Dzuko valley, Brow-Antlered Deer (Cervus eldi eldi) locally known as Sangai , surviving in its natural habitat at the Keibul Lamjao only in this region which is now a National park with its unique physical feature of being submerged under water covered entirely on the surface by a floating entangled mass of vegetation like grass, shrubs and earth, called phumdi. Yangoupokpi - Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary situated in Chandel District providing natural habitat to the Malayan Sun Bear. The State,s bio-diversity, is still unexplored to its fullest extent as large areas are still virgin forest inhabiting very rare plants of rich medicinal value like Taxus baccata, ginseng, etc and many rare orchids and ferns.


The state has created an irrigation potential of 28,500 Ha with utilisation of 21,850 Ha. In addition 2,100 Ha of low lying areas has been reclaimed by Thoubal Project. Project to Bridge the gap between potential created and actual utilised. have also been formulated . At present, the State Government is emphasizing on accelerating the progress of the three ongoing projects of Khuga Multipurpose Project Thoubal Multipurpose Project and Dolaithabi Barrage.

Commerce and Industries

Handloom industry is the backbone of the state's employing the highest of states population. The most dintinguishing featue of this sector is the fact that women are the only weavers. Food Processing is another popular industry in Manipur. State Government has established a Food Processing Training Centre and Food Processing Training Hall at Imphal. A food Park is also being set up at Imphal. The introduction of border trade with Mayanmar introduced in 1995 has provided a viable option for the state's commerce. To further enhance the Prospect, a Warehouse, Conventional Hall and Stay Facility Centre at border town Moreh, Trade Centre at Imphal. have been set up.


With a installed capacity of over 42,750 and more than 2,000 villages electrified , the power supply situation has shown a marked improvement in theavailability of power . Loktak HE Project (NHPC), Kopili HE Project, Khandong HE Project, Doyang HE Project, Rangnadi HE Project and AGBPP, Kathalguri and AGTPP, Ramchandranagar (all NEEPCO) have contributed majorly to this improved situation..


Tourist Centres

The state has been naturally endowed with so much of splendor that tourist cant got over. Some important tourist centres in Manipur include temples like Shree Govindajee temple, Khwairamband Bazar (Ima Keithel), War cemeteries like Shaheed Minar, Nupi Lan (Women's War) Memorial Complex, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Memorial (Moirang), State Museum, Kaina Tourist Home, Khongjom War Memorial Complex, and natural sight like Loktak Lake, Keibul Lamjao National Park, Bishnu Temple at Bishnupur, Sendra, Moreh, Siroy Village, Siroy Hills, Dzuko Valley, etc.