15. MAHARASTRA has Arabian Sea is on its western side , while Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh on the northern side, Chhattisgarh covers the eastern boundary of the State, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are on its southern side. It has a total area of 3,07,713 sq km with a total population of 96,752,247 Mumbai is the capiatl city and the principal languages is Marathi.
History and Geography
The first notable rulers of the region around Maharashtra were the Satavahanas (230 BC 225 AD). Then came the Vakatakas,followed a brief period of the Kalachuri dynasty, then came the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas,along with the Shilaharas on the coast.The Bahamani rule who succeeded the Yadavas brought a degree of homogenity to the land but it was only under the the able leadership of Shivaji. that the Maratha emerged as a disincy entity. The Peshwas extended Maratha supremacy from the Deccan Plateau to Attock in Punjab. Maharashtra provided the breed ground for the Indian National Congress . A galaxy of leaders from Mumbai and other cities in Maharashtra led the Congress movement under othe guidance of Tilak, and later Mahatma Gandhi. Maharashtra was the home of Gandhiji's movement, while Sevagram was the capital of nationalistic India during the Gandhian era. The administrative evolution of the state of Maharashtra is the outcome of the linguistic reorganisation of the States of India, effected on 1 May, 1960. The State was formed by bringing together all contiguous Marathi-speaking areas, which previously belonged to four different administrative hegemonies-the district between Daman and Goa that formed part of the original British Bombay Province; five districts of the Nizam's dominion of Hyderabad; eight districts in the south of the Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh) and a sizeable number of petty native-ruled state enclaves lying enclosed within the above areas, which later merged with adjoining districts.
About 65% of the total workforce in the State are employed in agriculture and allied activities. Crops grown include rice, jowar, bajra, wheat, tur, mung, urad, gram and other pulses, oilseeds( Groundnut, sunflower, soyabean). Important cash crops are cotton, sugarcane, turmeric and vegetables and fruit crops like mango, banana, orange, grape, cashewnut, etc.
The State is accepted as the country's powerhouse and Mumbai, its capital is considered to be the capital city of India's financial and commercial markets. Cotton textiles, textile products,tobacco and related products, rubber, food products, breweries,paper and paper products, printing and publishing, plastic, chemical and chemical products, machinery,apparatus and appliances , electrical machinery,and transport equipment and parts are the back bone of the industrial production in the state.
Irrigation and Power
By the end of June-2005, 32 major, 178 medium and about 2,274 state sector minor irrigation projects had been completed. Another 21 major and 39 medium irrigation projects are under construction. The gross irrigated area in 2004-2005 was 36.36 lakh hectares. Maharashtra had an installed capacity of 12,909 MW in 2004-2005. The Plant Load Factor (PLF) in the State was 81.6 per cent and power generation was 68,507 million KWH.
Tourist centres include cave and its painting, hitorical site,hill station, beaches, relegious places and mordern cities. Cave painting of Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Kanheri and Karla caves are world renowned. Mahabaleshwar, Matheran and Panchgani, Jawhar, Malshejghat, Amboli, Chikaldara, Panhala are some of the Hill stations and religious places at Pandharpur, Nasik, Shirdi, Nanded, Audhanagnath, Trimbakeshwar, Tuljapur, Ganpatipule, Bhimashanker, Harihareshwar, Shegaon, Kolhapur, Jejuri and Ambajogai.attaract a lot of tourist all round the year.