12. KARNATAKA lies to the south of Goa and Maharashtra, to the west of Andhra Pradesh, to the north-west of Tamil Nadu and to the north of Kerala. It has a sea-coast of nearly 400 km (300 km with inundations) . Its total area is 1,91,791 sq km with a toal population of 52,850,562 Bangalore is the capital city and Kannada is the principal languages
History and Geography
The historical beginning of the state dates back to the early Christian era however the real political history of the state begins with the Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) who ruled over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kaveri. They were succeeded by the Rashtrakutas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed, . Kannada literature developed during this period. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu and . Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1646) fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature the region. Overseas trade also flourished during their rule. The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (tobacco, maize, chillies, groundnut, potato, etc.). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under the British control. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th century. Freedom Movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After Indian independence, the new united Mysore State was created in 1956, and was renamed Karnataka in 1973.
Agriculture and allied activities employ nearly 56 per cent of the workforce of Karnataka . Major food crops are paddy, jowar, ragi, maize, bajra, wheat, pulses, groundnut, sunflower, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco. The State contributes about 5.59 % of the national foodgrains production. The State is also blessed with natural resources, favourable agro-climatic conditions and enterprising farming community, allowing for an all-round development of horticulture. It is the first state to establish a large scale Biotechnology Centre under public sector to cater to the needs of farmers. Horticulture covers an area of 15.81 lakh hectares in the State. The horticultural policy focuses on area expansion, dissemination of new technology and production and supply productivity of planting materials.
Irrigation and Power
Karnatka has the basins of the Krishna, Cauvery, Godavari, North Pennar, South Pennar, Palar and the west flowing river with a drainage area of 1,90,500 sq km. The total installed capacity of the State is 5,836 MW with plans to add about 2,400 MW of additional generation capacity mainly from the following power projects: (i) Almatti Hydel Project: 290 MW: (ii) RTPS 8th unit 210 MW; (iii) Bellary Thermal Power Project 500 MW; and (iv) Bidadi Combined Cycle Project 1,400 MW. The State has achieved 100 per cent in village electrification.
Karnataka is emerging as the knowledge and technical capital of the country and a leading global playerwith an ever increasing concentration of I.T related industries, bio-technology, BPOs and IPOs combined with strong research and development institutions. This is supplemented by a large pool of qualified trained manpower . Karnataka is one among the most preferred destinations for foreign investments in India and houses 65 of world fortune 500 companies. The diversification of the state's industrial base can be gauged from the fact that the State is home for every sector of industry such as, Information Technology, Bio-technology, Electronics, Telecom, Aerospace, Processed Foods, Apparel, Automobiles, Banking and Finance, Mining, Steel, Cement and much more. The State contributes 70 per cent of India's coffee and silk, 20 per cent electronic hardware and 35 per cent of software for exports and is a major producer of spices, flowers, fruits and vegetables. Sector specific policies, viz., I.T. Policy, B.T. Policy, B.P.O. Policy, Tourism Policy, Agro Food Processing Policy and Export Promotion Policy are in place for focused backing. The State has simplified Labour Law, Land Reforms Act, and the Karnataka Industries (Facilitation) Act 2002 is under enactment to ease doing business in the State and wherein deemed approval clause is incorporated.
Karnataka has all minerals except hydrocarbons available in the State. Important minerals are gold iron ore, copper, manganese, chromite, limestone, clay, kaonite, silica sand, moulding sand, felsite, quartzite and ornamental granites, etc.
The former princely capital Mysore with the Brindavan Gardens and Srirangapattana nearby, Sharavanabelgola with the famous monolithic statue of Gomateshwara (57 ft high), Belur, Halebid and Somnathpura with the famous Hoysala monuments; Badami, Aihole and Pattadkal for the 1,300 year old rock-cut and structural temples; Hampi, the famous open air museum (ancient Vijayanagar); Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur, renowned for their Indo-saracenic monuments; Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada Districts for beautiful beaches; Mangalore and Krwar for ports; Chitradurga, Bidar, Basavakalyan and Gulbarga with attractive forts; Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park are the play ground of Wild Life; Ranganthittu, Kokkre Bellur, Mandagadde, Gudavi, Attiveri are the famous bird sancturaries; Jog, Sathodi, Shivanasamudra, Mogod, Gokak, Abbey, Unchalli. Irupu, Hebbe, Kalhatti are the mesmerising Falls; Madikeri, Kemmannugundi, B.R. Hills, Nandi Hills, Kudremukh, Kodachadri are the Picturesque Hill Stations. Dussehra, Hampi, Chalukya, Kadamba, Hoysala, Kodagu, Karaga festivals, are depicting art and culture of Karnataka. Kabini River Lodge, K. Gudi, Cauveri Fishing Camp, D handeli Wilderness Camp, Devbagh are the unique Eco-Tourism projects of Karnataka. Gokarna, Udupi, Dharmashala, Melukote, Gangappura, Saundatti, Kollur, Sringeri, Horanadu, Kalasa, Kukke Subramanya, Yediyur, Koodalasangama, Ulvi, Nanjangud are famous pilgrimage centres. Tourism Department has identified 215 tourist spots in the State. The capital city of Bangalore is also a tourist attraction with its famous huge granite structure. Vidhana Soudha and the beautiful Cubbon Park, and Lalbhag. Hampi and Pattadakal have been declared as World Heritage sites