11. JHARKHAND shares its boundaries with West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the west, Bihar in the north and Orissa in the south.The total area of Area of 79,714 sq km and a total population of 26,909,428. Ranchi is the capital city and the most popular language spoken in the region is Hindi.
History and Geography
Jharkhand the 28th State of the Union came into being on 15 November, 2000, is the homeland of the tribals. According to a legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It is covered with forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana and has distinct cultural traditions. The Jharkhand Mukti Morcha started a regular agitation, which impelled the government to establish the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995, and finally attained the status of a full-fledged State.
The State has an area of 79,714 sq km of which 18,423 sq km is forestland. Agriculture and allied activities are the major source of Jharkhand's economy. The total cultivable land is only 38 lakh hectares. Rice,wheat, sugarcane and vegetables are the major agricultural products of the state.
Irrigation and Power
Damodar, Maurakshi, Barakar, North Koyel, South Koyel, Sankh, Subarnarekha, Kharkai, and Ajay are major water resources in the State. The net irrigated area covers about 8 per cent of the net sown area. The installed capacity of power in Jharkhand is 2,590 MW distributes as 420 MW (Tenughat Thermal Power Station), 840 MW (Patratu Thermal Power Station), 130 MW (Sikkidiri Hydel Project) and 1,200 MW (Damodar Valley Corporation Thermal/Hydel Project). The prospects of capacity addition in both the thermal and hydel sectors of various power stations is 4,736 MW. This includes 686 Mw hydel generation.
Industry and Minerals
Some of Jharkhand's major industries include Bokaro Steel Plant in the public sector, and Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) in Jamshedpur, Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), Timken India Limited (Jamshedpur), Bharat Cooking Limited (Dhanbad), Khilari Cement Factory (Palamu), Indian Aluminum (Muri), ACC cement (Chaibsa), Central Coalfields Limited (Ranchi), Usha Martin, Usha Beltron, Uranium Corporation (I) Limited (Jadugora), Hindustan Copper Limited (Mussabani), Tin Plate Company of India Limited (Jamshedpur), Indian Explosive Limited (Gomia), and Hindalco Bauxite (Lohardaga), etc. The State is richest in the country in terms of its mineral resources and mining employs the largest share of population in this state.The important available minerals are coal, iron ore, limestone, copper ore, bauxite, pyrite, china clay, kyanite, fine clay, dolomite, graphite, bentonite, soap stone, quartz sand and silica sand. The nascent state of Jharkhand has the enormous potential for exploitation of coal, mica and other minerals particularly in Singhbhum, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Koderma and Dhanbad.
There are many scenic attractions in the statemainly in form of sancturies national parksetc. Some important ones include Ichagarh Bird Sanctuary, Udhava Bird Sanctuary-Sahibganj (Pathara Lake), Chachro Crocodile Breeding Centre-Koderma (Tilaya Dam), Chandrapura Bird Sanctuary, Jawaharlal Nehru Zoological Garden (Bokaro), Tenughat Bird Sanctuary, Dalma Wild Life Sanctuary (Jamshedpur), Tata Steel Zoological Park (Jamshedpur), Palkote Wild Life Sanctuary (Gumla), Bhagwan Birsa Zoological Gardens (Ranchi), Birsa Deer Sanctuary (Kalmati Ranchi), Betla National Park (Palamau), Ranchi Aquarium (Ranchi) and Hazaribagh National Park, Tatoloi hot water stream (Dumka) and Saranda Forest. Apart from the above, Jharkhand has some famous temples like, Jharkhand Dham, Langta Baba Temple/Majar, Bindhvashini Temple, Masanjore Dam, etc.