8. HARAYANA shares its boundaries withRajasthan in the south , Punjab in the west,Uttar Pradesh in the east and Himachal Pradesh in the north . The National Capital Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana. The total area of the state is 44,212 sq km with a total population of 21,144,564. Chandigarhis the capital city and the principal language of the statye is Hindi
History and Geography
The history of Haryana goes back to the Harrappan Age. The state was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty,whose name was later incorporated as Bharat for India. Haryana is mentioned in the great epic of Mahabharata as Kurukshetra is situated in Haryana. Haryana functioned as an adjunct to Delhi under the Muslim ruler during the medieval age.After First War of India's Independence in 1857 the rebellion was crushed and the Britishers deprived the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari of their territories. Their territories were was distributed among the Britishers and the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. This resulted in Harayana becoming a part of the Punjab .Haryana was made into a full-fledged state after the reorganisation of Punjab on 1 November 1966 .
Agriculture employs more than 75 per cent population in Haryana. Rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jowar, bajra , maize, barley, pulses, oilseeds and potato are the major crops of the state. New crops like sunflower, fruits and vegetables and soyabean are being popularised by the givernmet in the state.
With the growing importance of Information Technology in todays globalized world, the State Government providing several incentives for IT and ITES/BPO Industry. The recently announced policy for Technology Parks, giving considerable flexibility for setting up SEZ in this sector. Gurgaon has become the hub for investment for both IT and ITES/BPO companies. . Besides Gurgaon, the state is developing other areas in NCR region, especially those falling on Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Express Highway and Faridabad. The software exports from the sstate has been increasing at a fast pace.
Haryana has more than 1,271 large and medium scale units and over 80,000 Small Scale Units. Haryana is the largest producer of scientific instruments, passenger cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators etc. It is the largest exporter of Basmati rice . Panipat handlooms and carpets reputed all over the world . State is developing industrial model township at Rohtak, Faridabad and Jagadhari and is planing to expand IMT Manesar . A new Petrochemical Hub is also in the pipeline at Panipat. Indian Oil Corporation is alo setting Paraxylene/PTA project at Panipat. Maruti Udyog, Hero Honda and many other automobile ancillaries expanding in the state with fresh investment. Textile sector particularly the readymade garment is coming up in the State.
Haryana is sharing the benefits of a lot of multi purpose project in Sutlej and Beas with Punjab and Rajasthan. Major irrigation projects are western Yamuna Canal, Bhakra Canal and Gurgaon Canal System. The Siwani, Loharu, Jui and Jawahar Lal Nehru Lift irrigation schemes have helped in carrying irrigation water to arid areas. Sprinkler and drip irrigation have been introduced in the highly undulating and sandy tracks of Haryana. Construction work of Hathni Kund barrage has been completed giving irrigational water to Haryana and Uttar Pradesh
Haryana became the first State achieve 100 per cent rural electrification in 1970.The installed generation capacity was 4033 MW as on 31 March 2006. Starting with 20,000 tubewells in 1966 there were 4.12 lakh tubewells in March 2006. The average power availability during 2005-06 was 621.79 lakh units a day.
Some of the important tourist complexes of the state include Blue Jay (Samalkha), Skylark (Panipat),Jungle Babbler (Dharuhere), Chakravarty Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodel), Shama (Gurgaon), Gauriyya (Bahadurgarh), Myna (Rohtak), Blue Bird (Hisar), Red Bishop (Panchkula) and Pinjore Gardens (Pinjore). Surajkund and Badkhal Lake near Delhi, Sultanpur bird sancturary (Sultanpur, Gurgaon) and Damdama in Gurgaon and fascinating pocket of pines at Morni Hills are other attractions of tourist interest. The Surajkund Crafts Mela of International fame is held every year in the month of February