7. GUJRAT as a state came into being in May, 1960. Situated on the west coast of India, the state is bounded by Pakistan in the north and Rajasthan in north-east, the Arabian Sea on the west, Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Maharashtra in the south. Its total area is 1,96,024 sq km and total population of 50,671,017.Gandhinagar is the capital city and Gujrati is the principal languages spoken in the state.
History and Geography
The history of Gujarat goes back to 2000 BC.its has a lot of important sites of the Harrappan civilization Mythologically when Lord Krishna left Mathura he settled on the western coast of Saurashtra, later known as Dwarka. Later, Mauryas, Guptas, Pratiharas , Chalukya (Solankis) ruled the region. The prosperity of the region can be gauged from the fact that it remained the most preffered choice Mahmud of Ghazni for plundering . Gujarat continued to face troubled times under the Muslims(Sultan and the Mughals), Marathas and the British .during british times the present day Gujarat existed in two parts, the British and the Princely territories. After independence in the re-organisation of the States, the States of Saurashtra and the Union Territory of Kachchh became a part of State of Bombay.
Gujarat is the main producer of cotton, tobacco and groundnut of the country and providingraw matwerial for textiles, oil and soap industries . Other important cash crops are paddy, isabgol , wheat and bajra . Forest species available in Gujarat are teak, khair, and manual bamboos.
The industrial structure in the State has a wide range of diversity covering industries like petrochemicals, fertilizers, chemicals, engineering, electronics, etc. The number of Small-Scale industrial units is 2.99 lakh at the end of March 2005. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) with the primary role of developing industrial estates with infrastructure facilities, has set up 237 industrial estates by the end of 2005.
Irrigation and Power
The total irrigation potential of the state with the given potential of surface water as well as ground water is estimated to be64.88 lakh hectars including 17.92 lakh hectares by the Sardar Sarovar ( Narmada ) Project. In the Power sector, the total installed capacity of the state was 8763 MW as on 31 March 2005.
Major tourist attractions in the State include places of memorable monuments of architectural and archaeological surprises like Lothal, Patan, Siddhpur Ghurnli, Dabhoi and Ahmedabad, Porbandar(birth place of Mahatma Gandhi) Religious spots like Palitana, Pavagadh, Ambaji,Dwarka, Somnath, Taranga, Bhadreshwar, Shamlaji and Girnar. Beautiful beaches like Ahmadpur-Mandvi, Chorwad, Ubharat and Tithal and natural beauty of hill station Saputara; lion sanctuary of Gir Forest and wild ass sanctuary in Kachchh area.