2. CHANDIGARH is bounded on North and West by Punjab and on the East and South by Haryana. It has a total area of 114 sq km with a population of 900,635. Chandigarh is the capital city and the principal languages spoken in the region are Hindi, Punjabi, English
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
The city nestles in a picturesque setting in the foothills of Shivalik hills and is a representative of modern Architecture & Town Planning., The city is a creation of the French Architect, Le Corbusier, Chandigarh and the area surrounding it were constituted as a Union Territory on 1 November 1966. It serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana States.
The Union Territory Chandigarh has limited area under Agriculture. The agricultural land is being gradually acquired for the expansion of Chandigarh City, and cultivated area has shrunk from 5,441 hectares in 1966 to 1,400 hectares in 2002-03. The main sources of irrigation are deep-bore tube-wells installed by the Administration and shallow tube-wells installed by individual farmers. The main crop of foodgrain is wheat and it is sown nearly in 700 hectares of land. The Department is making efforts to promote techniques of harvesting by following measures:
There are 15 large and medium industries, and about 3,140 small-scale industrial units in the State. These units are mainly ancillary units engaged in the manufacturing of industrial fasteners, steel and wooden furniture, machine tools, soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals, electrical/electronic items, sanitary fittings, sports goods, plastic goods, knitting needles, etc. There are about 20 major exporting units in Chandigarh. The Administration's efforts now are to promote only hi-tech electronic and information technology, non-polluting industry besides the export oriented industry for future expansion.
Chandigarh gets power from neighbouring states and Central generation projects to meet its power requirement. It has 3.5 per cent share of total power generation of Bhakra complex. Further, it gets 82.9 mw , out of thermal, nuclear and gas based Central generation projects. The shortfall is being met through ad hoc allocation from BBMB besides Central projects. All the villages around the city stand electrified and have been extended the facility of public lighting. About 2,000 number of energy efficient lamps have been installed in various important buildings.
Chandigarh has made strides in the field of Information Technology .On 25 September 2005 Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park was inaugurated. This has added a fresh dimension to the economy of the city. The creation of a knowledge-based industry is an impetus to Chandigarh being seen as an investment destination for technology companies.The Administration is also considering the development of Chandigarh as a financial services hub. Projects like the Chandigarh Technology Park, Education City and Film City will further improve the level of economic activity. In the second phase of the IT Park, Wipro has been made an anchor company and Bharti Teleservices has also been allotted land to set up its software development centre-cum-campus. The 250 acre phase-II of the CTP will comprise of 115 acres for Technology Park and 135 acres for integrated support facilities. An Entrepreneur Development Centre (EDC) is also being established at the CTP. It would be available to IT/ITES/BPO companies for incubation and for setting up of plug and play facilities. It will have a research laboratory which will provide modern facilities to companies to work in.
WATER TREATMENT AND IRRIGATION
The Chandigarh Administration has initiated action on the various projects with focus on improving efficiency in urban services delivery system. The Municipal Corporation has already sent a project on Tertiary Water Treatment to the Union Government. The Chandigarh Administration has made a provision of Rs.94.22 crore of tax revenue for the Municipal Corporation.The augmentation work of water supply scheme, 25 new deep tube wells have been installed at various parts of the city and 12 new irrigation tube wells have been installed for supplying of water for irrigation. The Tertiary Water Distribution Network will be further augmented . For further augmenting the water supply, 19 new tube wells will also be installed at a cost of Rs. 300 lakh.
Chandigarh has one of the better power supply and electricity distribution systems in the country. The administration has undertaken a project to provide electricity with a reliability of 99.99 per cent . Keeping in view the need for a quick and efficient public transportation system for Chandigarh, a new Grid Transport System has been introduced. Expressions of interest have been invited for a rail based mass rapid transit system.
COMMERCE AND TRADE
With an aim to create an entrepreneur friendly environment all the major decisions are taken in consultation with the user groups. Public opinion on the Excise Policy 2006-07 has been sought by the Chandigarh Administration to make it more user friendly before its final implementation. The draft Excise Policy has been framed in consonance with the Model Excise Policy/Taxation/ Act Rules for alcoholic beverages circulated by the Union Ministry of Food Processing Industries. Simultaneously, it also meant to check the evasion of the excise duty and other taxes and substantially enhance the revenue of the Administration. To boost commercial activities the Administration has recently announced the liberalization of conversion from one trade to another. Under the policy, free conversion of trade in respect of the ground floors of commercial establishments has been allowed. Allottees of commercial sites and premises can pursue most trades without applying for conversion and without paying for it on the ground floor.
Chandigarh Transport Undertaking has the privilege to operate public transport plied on sub-urban routes, city routes and on inter-state routes. The length of national highways is 15.275 km. Chandigarh is well connected by all, road and air as well.
Important tourist centres are Rock Garden, Rose Garden, Sukhna Lake, Museum and Art Gallery, City Museum, Tower of Shadows, Geometric Hill Museum of Evolution, Kala Gram, Log Huts, Nepli Forests, Fitness Trails (in Leisure Valley), National Gallery of Portraits, Central Plaza, International Doll Museum and Smriti Upvan